Mosaics – Pieces of Art Feb16

Mosaics – Pieces of Art...

Mosaic art uses small pieces of material, placed together to form a pattern or image. These pieces are called tessera and usually consist of glass, stone, ceramics, mirror, or shells. The space (or interstices) between the tesserae are then filled with grout to solidify the artwork. There are several different techniques used to create mosaic art: Opus regulatum: the tesserae create a grid where the pieces align both horizontally and vertically. Opus tessellatum: the tesserae created a horizontal or a vertical alignment, but not both. Opus vermiculatum: the tesserae follow the edge of a particular shape highlighting the shape. Opus musivum: similar to Opus vermiculatum but extends throughout the entire background. Opus palladianum: the tesserae are irregular shaped and unevenly placed. Opus sectile: a single tessera creates a major shape. Opus classicum: a combination of vermiculatum, tessellatum and regulatum. Opus circumactum: the tesserae are set up in semicircle or fan shapes that overlap. Micromosaic: the tesserae are extremely small, used in jewelry or Italian panels. There are three main techniques to laying mosaics. The Direct method, used where surfaces have a three-dimensional quality, is when the tesserae are glued directly to a support piece and then grouted. The Indirect method, which is mainly used for larger or vertical surfaces, is when the tesserae are placed upside-down on an adhesive-backed paper and then transferred to the structure. The Double Indirect method is used when seeing the design is important. The tesserae are placed face-up on an adhesive or sticky surface, then after the design is complete, another adhesive surface is placed on the facing-side and then carefully removing the one below. This is the most difficult of the three techniques. The history of Mosaic art is rich and examples from various cultures can be found...